ORGANIZING OF INFORMATIONAL AND TELEMETRY SERVICES FOR MEANS OF SELF DIAGNOSTICS AND MONITORING OF LIFECYCLE OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE BASED ON UNIFIED CONTROL SYSTEM

I.V. Makarov
AVASYS-GeoService, LLC
Siberian Federal university, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

The development of robotic air-based systems, namely unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), is moving toward the complexity of system management for improving performance.
For a number of tasks with the use of UAVs successfully realised the fully automated versions, when on-board control unit (SCU) controls the aircraft in all phases of flight, leaving for ground control (GCC) only function of problem formulation and the monitoring of its implementation.
One of the most obvious types of work for this technique are civilian tasks aerial monitoring of various types and aerial geophysics.
UAVs system, targeted for this niche is necessary to consider the following features:

  • high level of competition;
  • increased requirements for ergonomic use of the complex due to the lack of piloting customers skills;
  • high demands on the airframe and the system as a whole;
  • required to minimize the risk of loss of the machine in flight.

    Unlike systems for military and special applications where economic indicators are secondary, civil systems should play role of everyday tool that makes a profit for customers.
    Analysis of the current advances in UAVs technology for the systems with maximum takeoff weight of up to 4 kg shows that no challenges to provide a high level of reliability at the lowest price. SCU of such systems is a simple autopilot in conjunction with standard servos. The limitation of the flight duration of 60-90 minutes for this class and a payload (300-400g), narrows the choices down to a compact consumer camera or thermal imager. The lens low resolution, as a result of low weight, dramatically reduces the accuracy of the camera, reducing the range of possible applications in the optical range just monitoring purposes.
    UAVs with 1 and more kg payload, in particular when the price is comparable to the cost of the UAV require, by the authors experience, the next approaches to reliability:

    • utilization of noise-free interfaces for communication between the autopilot and external devices;
    • duplication of computational tools (takeoff weight more than 30 kg);
    • duplication of navigation aids (takeoff weight more than 30 kg);
    • duplication of automatic salvation functions;
    • pre launch self-diagnosis;
    • self-test during flight;
    • regular analysis of telemetry including for accident-free flying.

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